Marxism is a political ideology that I will explain in several points:
1) Society is very unequal
2) Workers (The proletariat) are being shafted
3) Wealth is concentrated in the hands of those who own “the means of production” i.e capitalists, the Bourgeoisie. They work for maximum profit, and therefore live in luxury at the expense of the common people (The proletariat)
(The means of production being factories, oil fields, farms…. basically anything that, when owned, can be used to produce valuable goods)
4) This inequality is a severe problem.
5) This inequality is a natural historical development, throughout history various groups have controlled power and resources. Now it is the capitalists, who seized power from the aristocracy.
6) The next class to hold power will inevitably be the workers. They will seize power through democracy.
7) A democratically elected government chosen by the people should and will seize the means of production from the bourgeoisie and run the factories, farms etc. for the benefit of the people.
This has been marxist theory 101.
I hate to break it to you, but those are Enlightenment values.
Explain which enlightenment thinkers thought in these terms. Marxism is an industrial era ideology and most enlightenment thought was pre-industrial.
Enlightenment political thought was mainly people vs. aristocracy. The Capitalist was often included on the side of the people. Indeed it was during the enlightenment era that capitalism became the dominate system.
Though Marx and other proto-socialists and communists may have borrowed from enlightenment thought certain concepts (basic equality and democracy for example) they also contributed their own emphasis and spin.
Furthermore many enlightenment thinkers were heavily concerned with property rights. A thing Marxism rides rough shod over.